Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)
Ovulation is monitored, with or without induction, and the prepared sperm sample is placed in the uterine cavity on the day of ovulation.
Conventional In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
The method of conventional fertilisation is selected when all sperm parameters are normal. It is essential for the success of this technique to ensure a sufficient number of moving spermatozoa after the sperm treatment. Then the oocytes and processed sperm are placed together in a cell-culture dish for a set time. During this time, the spermatozoa usually reach the oocytes and fertilise them.
Conventional IVF is widely considered as the most “natural” technique.
In cases of non-obstructive azoospermia, when the level of spermatogenesis is very low, the most appropriate technique for spermatozoa extraction is the biopsy using multiple tissues.
An expert urologist surgeon, using a microscope, cuts the appropriate testicular tubules in which spermatozoa are most likely to be found. A clinical embryologist, checks the samples for the presence of spermatozoa using another microscope. In the case of mature spermatozoa are found, they will be cryopreserved or used directly to fertilise the oocytes.
Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
The micro-injection technique is applied with great success to couples who are facing:
- male infertility (oligospermia, asthenospermia, teratozoospermia, azoospermia)
- low oocyte quality
- limited number of oocytes
Furthermore, ICSI is indicated in cases where a low contact of oocyte and sperm has been proven. With ICSI, spermatozoa are selected based on their morphology and motility, and are transferred one by one into the cytoplasm of the oocyte, using a very fine glass pipette.
ICSI is appropriate when conventional IVF has been applied with limited results and ensures high fertilisation rates.
IMSI: The new improved application of ICSI
ICSI’s evolution, in combination with the improvement of microscopes’ optical systems, enables the effective detection of viable spermatozoa. Recent studies and new technology in optical microscopy systems along with our laboratory experience in Embryolab ensures that the combination of the ICSI and IMSI techniques improves:
- the fertilisation rate
- the proportion of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage, increasing the chance of pregnancy, while decreasing the probability of miscarriage.
It is important to note that this technique enables the selection of the most appropriate spermatozoa.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (ACGH-PGS, PGD)
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis is a powerful tool for couples facing the increased likelihood of passing on a genetic disease to their offspring. Thousands of healthy children have been born worldwide after successful implementation of this method.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis comprise two categories:
- genetic diseases due to gene defects (PGD)
- genetic diseases due to chromosomal changes (PGS)